Former imam Jalal Uddin practised Ruqya healing in which he used amulets called taweez, which is regarded in some quarters as magic.

Jurors at the trial of Mohammed Syeedy, 21, who was convicted of murdering Mr Uddin, 71, in Rochdale on February 18 this year, heard that magic is "a controversial topic" in Islam.

Black magic involves the use of spirits or demons, often referred to as Jinn, to carry out harmful acts against individuals, Manchester Crown Court heard.

White magic involves the use of charms, incantations and amulets used for personal protection from evil spirits or to bring about fortuitous events, such as pregnancy or wealth.

Such amulets, used by Mr Uddin, are often called taweez which can be worn by a person and can contain mathematical symbols and verses from the Quran.

Prosecutor Paul Greaney QC told the jury: "Amulets involve the magician writing a series of magic formulae on a piece of paper, folding or rolling it and then placing it in a small box or other receptacle.

"The person who has requested the taweez then keeps it with himself or herself at all times in order, for example, to guard against the evil spirit.

"Sometimes it is worn around the neck but often it is not because the wearer might otherwise attract criticism or attack. As a result, it is sometimes sown into clothing."

He went on to explain that all Islamic scholars regard black magic as forbidden but many regard white magic as acceptable so long as it is carried out by someone skilled in its practice.

But he said that Islamic State supports a trend in Islam known as Salafism, whose followers argue Islam has strayed from its roots and should return to the practice of the seventh century.

Salafis reject all forms of magic and believe those who practise it should be punished, often by death, Mr Greaney added.

The court heard that Mr Uddin did not advertise his skill in Ruqya but word spread within Rochdale's Bangladeshi community who came to him in search of good fortune.