A Professor of Childhood Cancer Genetics at the Institute of Cancer research has been named in a list compiled for Radio 4's Woman's Hour.
The list of 10 women, described as "game-changers", was revealed in a special live programme and included individuals involved in issues including female genital mutilation (FGM), child poverty and internet safety.
Professor Nazneen Rahman is third in the list which is topped by the mother of murdered teenager Stephen Lawrence Baroness Doreen Lawrence.
Nimco Ali and Leyla Hussein - anti-FGM activists are both sixth on the list.
Home Secretary Theresa May who was ranked second in last year's inaugural Woman's Hour Power List, said Baroness Lawrence was "an example to us all".
Mrs May said: "Faced by a terrible tragedy, she picked herself up and carried on fighting to ensure that justice could be done, and the fight still continues.
"What is most striking about this woman is the great strength that she has shown over decades - strength to carry on, to keep on going, even in the most difficult times when all seemed impossible.
"Also striking is the persistence that she has shown, because she has never given up. And finally, what is most impressive about this game-changer is that throughout it all, over the years, despite blow after blow, she has dealt with everything with absolute dignity."
Journalist Emma Barnett, who chaired the judging panel, said: "It was no easy feat to come up with just 10 women who have 'changed the game' - so we had to develop a thesis.
"The ambition for this year's list was to capture a snapshot of a moment in time - of those particular 'games' in 2014 that need changing and the women making a real difference in those fields.
"FGM is now taken seriously by politicians, while internet safety and child poverty are among the biggest problems society faces, and we have highlighted the women leading the charge to make sustainable changes in these areas and seven others."
:: The Woman's Hour Power List 1 - Doreen Lawrence OBE - anti-racism campaigner 2 - Julie Bailey CBE - campaigner and founder of Cure the NHS 3 - Professor Nazneen Rahman - geneticist and cancer specialist 4 - Carmel McConnell - activist and founder of Magic Breakfast 5 - Julie Bentley - chief executive of Girlguiding 6 - Nimco Ali and Leyla Hussein - anti-FGM activists 7 - Dido Harding - CEO, TalkTalk Group 8 - Francesca Martinez - comedian, actress and disability campaigner 9 - Laura Bates - founder of the Everyday Sexism Project 10 - Caitlin Moran - journalist and author